R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots)

science fiction play, Karel Čapek, 1921, Czech
It introduced the word “robot” to the English language and to science fiction as a whole. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people, made of synthetic organic matter, called “robots.” Unlike the modern usage of the term, these creatures are closer to the modern idea of cyborgs or even clones, as they can be mistaken for humans and can think for themselves. They seem happy to work for humans, although that changes, and a hostile robot rebellion leads to the extinction of the human race. It’s dark but has hope, and was successful in its day in both Europe and the United States.

Isaac Asimov 
( January 2, 1920- April 6, 1992)
I, Robot is a collection of nine science fiction stories by Isaac Asimov, first published in 1950. American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. Asimov is widely considered a master of hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke. Asimov was a long-time member and vice president of Mensa International, also president of  American Humanist Association. His famous work includes the Foundation Series, Galactic Empireseries and the Robot series.

Rainbows End
 science fiction novel by Vernor Vinge, 2006

The book is set in San Diego, California, in 2025. The many technological advances depicted in the novel suggest that the world is undergoing ever-increasing change, perhaps destined for a technological singularity, a recurring subject in Vinge’s writing (both fiction and non-fiction).
In the novel, augmented reality is dominant, with humans interacting with virtual overlays of reality almost all of the time. This is accomplished by wearing smart clothing providing gesture recognition and contact lenses that can overlay and replace what the eye would normally see with computer graphics, using advanced virtual retinal display (VRD) technology. In addition, haptic feedback is possible by overlaying graphics onto a physical machine such as a robot.



an autonomous toy dinosaur robot

Pleo Rb (for “reborn”) is designed to be an emotional robot.
The Life OS artificial-intelligence system in each Pleo has unique innate personality traits such as obedience and courage. They begin life as a hatchling Camarasaurus, either male (blue) or female (pink), and then go through infant and juvenile stages, interacting with their owner and the environment as they go through mood and health changes. Pleo is packed with sensors to see, hear, and feel its environment. The reborn model has voice recognition to respond to a given name, motion sensing, awareness of the time of day, and even a temperature sensor that makes it shiver in a cold room. Infrared sensors enable it to communicate with other Pleos. When two males meet, they’ll shout at each other, but a male and female will nuzzle.
Users can download personalities and behaviors from developer sites, and upload them to the robot via its SD card slot.
-the lithium polymer battery life 150 minutes, Priced at $469(Dec 2013)

A therapeutic robot intended to have a calming effect on patients, similar to animal-Assisted Therapy

PARO is an interactive robot developed by AIST, Japanese industrial automation company. It allows the documented benefits of animal therapy to be administered to patients in environments such as hospitals and extended care facilities where live animals present treatment or logistical difficulties. ,

Related site | www.geokim.org/robots , www.geokim.org/robotsQuiz


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